Tuesday, July 18, 2006

Saturday, February 11, 2006

INTEGRATING INFORMATION COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIES (ICT) INTO THE CURRICULUM: THE POTENTIAL CONTRIBUTION FOR ENHANCING MULTILITERACIES IN SCHOOLS

CONTENTS

Section

Summary

Introduction

Literature Review
ICT in Education

Critical history of ICT in education and visions for the future?

Theories and views on ICT and education

Why the need for effective integration of ICT in
Australian middle and senior schools?

Multiliteracies
What are literacies and what are the new literacies?

Different planning practices for teaching multiliteracies

Government policy, agendas and the problem of teacher
professional development

Effective Pedagogies
Integrating ICT to enhance multiliteracies for learning

Models of ICT pedagogy in networked writing classrooms

New Research and ICTs with a focus on multiliteracies

Methodology

Results / Discussion

Conclusions / Recommendations

References

Bibliography
















Summary

Integrating Information Communication Technology (ICT) into the curriculum: The potential contribution for enhancing learning of multiliteracies in Australian schools.

This literature review paper explores the potential of ICT as learning spaces for multiliteracies in middle and senior schools in Queensland. The paper presents the key issues, implications and findings relating to the above research topic. It refers to the nascent literature on the subject, the way ICT might be harnessed for multiliteracy purposes across the curriculum. This literature review shows examples of ICT and multiliteries largely in the context of a networked writing classroom of which would fit into The Arts - Media strand and English key learning areas. This literature review sheds light on theoretical and practical issues relating to ICT in Education and multiliteracies. Most insightful in this literature review are findings that relate to practical strategies that can be transfered to our own planning practices and pedagogies. These strategies are supported by notions of their effectiveness through which their implemention has shown success in the classroom. This paper in gaining insight into most effective pedagogies compares traditional pedagogy, constructivist pedagogy and the more recent concepts of emergent pedagogy. The paper concludes that ICT has the potential to be a transformational tool for teaching and learning, and schools ought to give strong consideration to the setting up of ICT facilities alongside of professional development for effective integration of ICT within their learning management systems.










Introduction

Integrating Information Communication Technology (ICT) into the curriculum: The potential contribution for enhancing learning of multiliteracies in Australian schools.

On entering the field of education I have found the idea of ICT being used all over the world by teachers and learners in meaningful and innovative ways an exciting and fascinating prospect. A literature review into the above topic aims to shed light on an area of personal, educational and professional interest. As a Bachelor of Arts (Media Studies) graduate and as a final year middle and senior school pre-service teacher with The Arts – Media strand and English as my key learning areas I hope that through conducting this literature review I am lead to more effectively integrate ICT and practices of multiliteracies into my own teaching.

There is an extensive body of work in the literature on the topic of integrating ICT and the potential contribution for enhancing learning of multiliteracies. Much of what I read posed valid and reasonable arguments for integrating ICT into the curriculum and the enhancing of multiliteracies. Many sources resonated similar claims with various supporting arguments and even counter-arguments on the issues and implications of both ICT and multiliteracies. I found many commentaries highlighted the ongoing problem in Australian schools to successfully integrate ICT into the curriculum and the pressing need for multiliteracies. Most sources in the literature review focused on a range of priorities and solutions.

The following priorities are highlighted and throughout this paper will be discussed in relation to the above research topic;

1. ICT in terms of a Critical history of ICT in education and visions for the future. The paper then highlights the notion of theories and views on ICT and education and then goes on to answer the question of why there is a need for effective integration of ICT in Australian schools.
2. Multiliteracies in terms of what multiliteracies are defined as and distinguishes what the new literacies encompass. The paper then explores the different planning practices for teaching multiliteracies and explores notions of government policy, agendas and the problem of teacher professional development.
3. Effective Pedagogies in terms of effectively integrating ICT to enhance student learning and multiliteracies. The paper compares models of ICT pedagogy in networked writing classrooms and highlights examples of World Wide Web ICT applications which enhance multiliteracies.

Due to word limits and the extensive amount of information on the topic only literature seen to be most essential to the purposes of this paper will be discussed and hopefully brought to light.





Literature Review
ICT in Education

Critical history of ICT in education and visions for the future?

From a teacher’s perspective, ICTs have the potential to be a valuable educational tool. For this to be realised it is helpful to learn from the past use of ICTs in our classrooms, as a means of understanding where we are today. The evolution of ICTs in education has not always seen the new innovations replacing the old. Many of the earlier ICT practices are still in use today and according to some of the literature still have their place in the classroom. (McKenzie, 2000)

In the late 70’s and early 80’s ICT use encompassed drill and practice programs and Basic programming in maths. The late 80’s and early 90’s saw the introduction of multimedia into the classroom. Interactive video and audio was seen as a way of involving students with more auditory and visual learning styles. Internet-based training was the next development in the early 90’s with limited multimedia component but was seen as a cost-efficient method of keeping in touch with information that changed rapidly. In the late 90’s and early 2000, movement turned towards e-Learning. The pedagogical reasons for these changes have not always been sound; rather they have emerged along with technological capability and have often failed as a result to deliver improved learning outcomes. (Leinonen, 2005)

Theories and views on ICT and education

Castels 1996; 1997; 1998; Best and Kellner, 2000 (as cited in Snyder, 2000) claim that we are now undergoing one of the most significant technological revolutions for education since the progression from oral to print and book-based teaching. Just as the transition to print literacy and book culture involved a dramatic transformation of education (McLuhan 1962, 1964; Ong, 1988 as cited in Snyder, 2000), so too does the current technological revolution demand a restructuring of education today with new curricula, pedagogy, literacies, practices and goals. Snyder, 2000 asserts that technology itself does not necessarily improve teaching and learning, and will certainly not of itself overcome acute socio-economic divisions. Indeed, without proper resources, pedagogy and educational practices, technology might be an obstacle or burden to genuine learning and will probably increase rather than overcome divisions of power, cultural capital, and wealth.

Lankshear, Snyder and Green, 2000, p.xiii in line with McKenzie, 2000 suggest that there are vital educational purposes and standards that must not be sacrificed to the technological dance or to the escalating corporatisation of education with which new technologies are so closely associated . If and where teachers and schools decide that they will integrate new communication and information technologies into curriculum and pedagogy, it is crucial that they keep these educational purposes and standards clearly in focus. Right now, teachers are under enormous pressure to technologise learning. (Lankshear, et al, 2000)

There exists barriers to integrating ICT, Ingvarson, 2000, p. 64 points out that research across the world shows that there are two overriding barriers to teachers learning and using the Internet those being time and access. Lankshear, et al, 2000, p.xiii claim that in the age of the Internet, we need to formulate theories that are as dynamic as the technologies themselves, but that are also critical and reflexive. In addition to such theories, teachers and students need to be responsive to the rapidly changing conditions that now govern the world. Lankshear, et al, 2000, p.xiii add that the current theories are evolving and that they are theories in the making.


Why the need for effective integration of ICT and learning of multilieracies in schools?

Information technology is a basic necessity of the information society we are currently in. Henri and Bonanno, 1999, p.ii suggest that without technology the stream of information would not be possible. However, information technology is only the means of the information society; it cannot be the end in itself. Further Henri and Bonanno, 1999, p.ii point out that technology has no value-judgement and it carries equally rapidly the nonsense as the good news, the pornography and the religious texts. Henri and Bonanno, 1999, p.ii also assert a need to teach young people to deal with this amount of information, which is poured through the pipes of information technology, in a critical and positive manner, that is, information literacy. Finally, it is young people who need comprehensive literacy skills to be able to survive in the uncertain world of tomorrow. Henri & Bonanno, 1999, p.ii Well known is the fact that students in Australian schools are the future citizens and workforce of tomorrow. Therefore it makes sense that for the benefit of our society, democracy and personal growth that young people are equipped with the knowledge and skills necessary to actively participate and make decisions in a technologically advanced and changing world.

Multiliteracies

What are literacies and what are the new literacies?

Literacy has many definitions which reflects the fact that this is a complex phenomenon. It is defined in Webster’s Dictionary as ‘ability to and read and write.’ (Henri & Bonanno, 1999, p.ii) It was defined until recently as ‘a mastery of the skills required to decode and interpret symbols, that is, reading’. (Henri & Bonanno, 1999, p.ii) Traditionally these constituted the printed world as in books. (Henri & Bonanno, 1999, p.ii). Katlantzis, Cope, Fehring & Heather, 2002, pp. 2-3 in defining literacy turn to key aspects of the new environment. To succeed in this society – to become adults who are able to function effectively within it – our students must learn to live with change. Katlantzis et al, 2002, pp. 2-3 highlight some of the forces at work, and their impacts on our understanding of literacy, are:
- Technology:
- Work:
- Visual communication:
- Diversity:
- Global English and multiple Englishes:
- English is fast becoming a world language:
- Social mobility and social progress:

Henri and Bonanno, 1999, p.ii elaborate to suggest that the past two decades the definitions of literacy have been changing and new terms have come up, including numeracy, media literacy, and then computer literacy and information literacy. What all of these do have in common, however is that with literacy we mean the skills to manipulate different symbols to the extent that they can be utilised and the meaning of these symbols can be put into different practices. Henri & Bonanno, 1999, p.ii Todd (1995a) as cited in Henri and Bonanno, 1999, p.ii argued that information literacy is represented by:

“The ability to use information purposefully and effectively. It is a holistic, interactive learning process encompassing the skills of defining, locating, selecting, organising, presenting, and evaluating information from sources including books and other media, experiences and people, being able to consider it to a store of knowledge and applying this knowledge capably and confidently to solve information needs.”

The relationship between new technologies, new social practices, and cultural change is dynamic and reciprocal. According to Bull & Anstey, 2003, p.69 on one hand, the development of new technologies creates conditions in which people can change existing social practices and develop new social practices, as well as new literacies that are integral parts of these new or changing practices. On the other hand, these practices simultaneously ‘constitute’ the technologies as cultural tools, and shape what they mean and, indeed what they are within the various contexts in which people use them.

Henri and Bonanno, 1999, p.4 pose the notion that if information is the process of becoming informed than information literacy could be identified as: Mastery of the processes of becoming informed.
Henri and Bonanno, 1999, p.4 suggest that mastery of the processes of being informed encompasses the ability to:
· recognise the need for information
· solve problems and develop ideas
· pose important questions
· use a variety of data gathering strategies
· locate relevant and appropriate data
· assess data for quality, authority, accuracy, and authenticity
· acknowledge that stress and uncertainty are essential components of the process of becoming informed
and encompasses the abilities to:

· use the practical and conceptual tools of information technology
· understand form, formats, location, and access methods
· identify how data are situated and produced
· articulate research processes
· format and publish in textual and multimedia formats
· adopt emerging technologies

Very few people would claim to be at the cutting edge of all of these abilities which fairly demonstrates that information literacy is not a snap shot, but an unfinished symphony. (Henri and Bonanno, 1999, p.4)

Different planning practices for teaching multiliteracies

Bull and Anstey, 2003, p.211 propose that in the mid-1990s, we asked a question that has likely been asked in one way or another by educators each time that a new communication technology has been developed: ‘What are the implications of this new technology for literacy education? Indeed this is a question various literature continue to ask and ponder.

Bull and Anstey, 2003 suggest how pedagogy has developed over the past decade and introduces a change or historical perspective from which to view unit planning. A pedagogy of literacy should be informed by critical evaluation of historical perspectives on literacy teaching in order to best suit the focus of the learning. These elements introduce a pedagogical perspective from which to view unit planning. Bull and Anstey, 2003 suggest that learning needs to incorporate knowledge about literacies (operational), using literacies for different purposes and in different contexts (cultural) or understanding how literacies can exercise power (critical).


In planning for practices and multilieracies Bull and Anstey, 2003 suggest a focus on the four pedagogical practices identified by Cope and Kalantzis, 2000, p.239 as cited in Bull and Anstey 2003. These inlude:

1. Situated practice: which draws on progressive pedagogies such as whole language and process writing and engages and immerses students in literate practices and topics that are part of their community context.
2. Overt instruction: explicit and focused learning episodes that draw upon teacher-centred transmission pedagogies such as traditional grammar and direct instruction.
3. Critical framing: pedagogy that draws upon the paradigm of critical literacy.
4. Transformed practice: pedagogy that focuses upon the transfer of strategies form one context to another.

Lankshear, Snyder and Green, 2000, p.136 examine three procedures to enhance teaching and learning in the area of literacy and new technologies. These include:
1.) Think social practice in 3D
2.) Begin with the cultural
3.) Take careful note of the operational and the critical

In terms of thinking social practice in 3D Lankshear, Snyder and Green pp. 136 - 138 (2000) suggest effective learning builds on understanding the rationale of what is being learned and how it fits into the larger scheme of human activities and purposes. A large research literature now exists, much of it concerned with literacy, which documents the relationship between learning failure or low levels of learning attainment, and students either not understanding from the teachers and successful students. (Boomer, 1988; Bourdeieu, 1977; Delgado-Gaitan, 1990; Delpit, 1995; Heath, 1983; Jones, 1986; Michaels, 1986; Moll, 1992 cited in Lankshear, et al, 2000, p.136)

In terms of beginning with the cultural Lankshear, et al, 2000, pp.139 - 144 maintains that classroom learning is ideally linked to, and in the service of, ‘real life’ and lifelike social practices. Effective learning involves making schools and classrooms as much as possible into ‘worldly’, socially meaningful places, characterised by what Jo-Anne Reid,1997, as cited in Lankshear et al, 2000 describes as ‘generic practice’ – the engaged production of social texts for real purposes.

In terms of taking careful note of the operational and the critical Lankshear, et al, 2000, pp. 144-146 highlights prioritising the cultural dimension of social practice, being clear about which social practice we are engaging in and having a sound understanding of ‘mature’ forms of related social practices in the world beyond the classroom, make the task of dealing with the operational and critical dimensions of literacy easier to handle; easier from the standpoint of both teachers and learners.

Lankshear, et al, 2000 draw attention to a valid argument. The literature claims that to emphasise use of technologies without adequate attention to foregrounding the structure and point of the practice is likely to confuse students in the short run and to be counterproductive in the long run, as it sets them out on a false tragectory.

Cairns, 1989, as cited in Bull and Anstey, 2003 suggest proposing a matrix for assessing the success of particular planning , although his proposal focused more on the lesson level whereas Green and Reid as cited in Bull and Anstey, 2003 were more concerned with themes or units of work. Emmit, 1991 as cited in Bull and Anstey, 2003 in proposing principles for planning, concentrated on school-wide programs for literacy instruction. According to Bull and Anstey, 2003 which particular approach is taken towards planning is not so important. Bull and Anstey, 2003 assert what is important is that a well thought out approach is used which is both comprehensive and logical. Further this can then be trialled over time to judge its effectiveness. Usually such trialling will produce change, so that planning practices tend to be dynamic rather than static. (Bull and Anstey, 2003). Because of this dynamism, there is great variety in planning practices which can lead to useful sharing between teachers with the goal being to develop new techniques rather than make all planning the same. (Bull and Anstey, 2003).


Bull and Anstey, 2003 suggest that gains have been reported by many teachers when students have been given a role in planning for literacy learning at the classroom level. Further students, as with teachers need guidance to become involved in negotiating the curriculum. Bull and Anstey, 2003 suggest that negotiation can take place that involves both teacher and students making some decisions about what is to be learned and how it is to be learned. There will always be non-negotiables for both teacher and students and, ideally, these should be known to everyone at the outset. (Bull and Anstey, 2003).

In highlighting an example of negotiating planning Bull and Anstey, 2003 use a very simple example in which students can be involved in a KWL (know, what, learn) exercise to determine ‘What I Know’, ‘What I want to Know’ and ‘What I have Learned’. Consequently this serves the teacher, for it helps to measure the entering behaviour of students and their individual interests. (Bull and Anstey, 2003). Students can make choices about which genres can be used, which books are appropriate, and which activities are selected to assist in investigating the topic. According to Bull and Anstey, 2003 the more students are involved at this level the more motivated they become, and the more successful the learning that takes place. Bull and Anstey, 2003 assert that there are dividends in this process for both teacher and students.

Government policy, agendas and the problem of teacher professional development

The literature reveals that there is an ongoing debate over the effectiveness of integrating ICT into the school curriculum. From past experiences with unsuccessful integration of ICT due to lack of professional development many school leaders and teachers are reluctant to invest time, effort, and funding required to effectively integrate ICT into the curriculum. The effects of a lack of investment in a school’s ICT capacities results in a less than innovative and information literate school. An outcome of such a scenario is one in which students are ill-equiped for their futures, as they are not competent with the use of technology and their multiliteracy skills are underdeveloped.

The relationship between the new technologies and literacy education has, therefore, become a matter of considerable interest for policy makers, practitioners and scholars, and is now a key issue for literacy educators (Lankshear & Bigum, 1999; Durrant & Beavis, 2001 as cited in Bull & Anstey, 2003, p.211)
In Australia, what is striking at the policy level is the extent to which literacy has been drawn explicitly within the ambit of the State, becoming officially a matter of national policy. First introduced in the ‘Department of Employment, Education and Training’ (DEET) ‘The Australian Language and Literacy Policy’ (ALLP) (DEET, 1991) and later consolidated in the ‘Department of Employment, Education, Training and Youth Affairs’ (DETYA) as the ‘Commonwealth Literacy Policy’ (CLP) (DETYA, 1998), literacy has clearly become a major concern for governments. Bull criticises the government for the fact that new literacies and emergent literacies are given little emphasis at all. This is curious in that, elsewhere in the current social and curriculum policy realm, information technology is viewed with particular favour and enthusiasm, and tied directly to the task of modernisation and economic development (Bigum and Green 1993; Lankshear 1997 as cited in Bull & Anstey, 2003, p.211)

Henri & Bonanno, 1999, p.4 argue there is no doubt that the need for learning cultures that foster information literacy has been recognised and articulated in a slate of Australian and overseas publications and government reports. Much of what is regarded as knowledge dates rapidly. Information literate people are able to replenish their knowledge base. But old habits die hard and the teaching and learning programs that we see in schools may provide mere lip service to its pursuit.

A crucial factor in successful implementation of ICTs to support learning and knowledge building activities is the skills of the individual teacher. A New Zealand survey of schools that had Geographic Information Software found that appropriate professional development for teachers needs to be provided for teachers to gain this confidence. (Bowes, 2003). Bowes, 2003 suggests that as the purpose for ICT use in schools has changed and so must the focus on professional development. Professional development must therefore focus not only on the acquisition of ICT skills or enhancing students skills within the curriculum but also on using ICTs to enhance students’ abilities through understanding how learning occurs.

Henri and Bonanno, 1999, p.4 suggest that the Principal and executive teachers, as leaders in the school learning community lead the forces of change within the school. Teachers are likely to support change when they are convinced that the introduction of an innovation is likely to benefit students, it can be resourced, there is dissatisfaction with the way things are, and their comfort levels are not overly compromised. And those teachers who control the assessment of students will have the most influence over students.

Oberman, Lindauer and Wilson, 1998 as cited in Henri and Bonanno, 1999, p.4 provide some insight into a range of processes and models that have been employed to further the cause of the integration of information literacy across a curriculum. Of particular interest is the information literacy IQ test designed by Oberman, et al, 1998. The purpose of this Institutional Quotient is to identify what critical building block must be in place to ensure a successful information literacy program.

Ingvarson, 2000, p. 66 suggest one way of convincing your administration and gaining momentum is forming an Internet committee/team. Whereby the committee has to deal with the issues of providing equitable, effective, safe access, and determining the support funding and technology that is used. This team forms a range of subcategories to carry out different roles. Ingvarson, 2000, p. 66 recommends that those on the team would need to be committed to spending more time on learning and planning for use of the internet by other teachers. Further there should be a mix of some computer experience and internet experience along with people who know nothing of the internet but have a strong understanding of the curriculum and an overview of how the curriculum is implemented within the school. (Ingvarson, 2000, p. 66)

Aspects of the internet team include

· Funding
· Student access
· Training
· Curriculum applications
Curriculum applications as suggested by Ingvarson, 2000, p. 66 follows in which the team acts to:
- create a list of good sites
- build a home page
- keep a list of projects available
- join some electronic discussions and post good responses for other staff to see

Effective Pedagogies

Integrating ICT to enhance multiliteracies for learning

Findings that relate to practical strategies that can be transfered to our own planning practices and pedagogies. These strategies are supported by notions of their effectiveness through which their implemention has shown success in the classroom. According to Shelly, Cashman and Gunter and Gunter p.7.11 (2004) learning occurs when the content engages students to use higher-order thinking skills that go beyond the simple acquisition of knowledge and become active learners. Shelly, et al, 2004, suggest this is accomplished when content challenges students to think, compare, reflect hypothesize, and discuss. Shelly, et al, 2004, p.7.12 states that when integrating technology, some teachers and schools move toward a non-traditional approach of student assessment to determine whether students have mastered the appropriate content and skill level. These may include assessment tasks that are authentic, project-based or consist of portfolios. (Shelly, et al, 2004, p.7.12) Bitter and Pierson, 2002, p.228 suggest when designing lessons teachers should reflect on how technology enables them to teach content at greater depth and how their use of technology enhances instruction.

Cognitive views and Constructivism

Physiological research on how the brain processes and stores knowledge has supported our understanding of learning. The brain retains information by creating a memory trace through producing chemical deposits between neurons, called synapses (Joseph & Brown, 2001). When meaningful learning occurs, new neurons (facts) are built and synapses (links between facts) are created between old and new neurons resulting in a more sophisticated knowledge network than existed before the learning occurred (Grabe & Grabe 2001 p. 49). Further this view of how the brain learns supports the reasoning behind the constructivist approach to leaning, in which learning is seen as an active exercise. Wilson and Davis, 1994 as cited in Chapuis, p.18 state that constructivist learners “structure his or her own knowledge of the world into a unique pattern, connecting each new fact, experience or understanding in a subjective way that binds the individual into rational and meaningful relationships to the wider world”. Jonassen, 2000, p.9 relates several ways that computers support constructivist learning including knowledge construction, explorations, learning by doing, learning by conversing and learning by reflecting.

Teachers may well have asked themselves the reasoning behind these emerging ICT practices and whether there is a sound basis for their use. Questions such as does it work, what works and why, are natural when teachers are expected to implement a new strategy (Breuleux, 2001). According to Breuleux, 2001 the research answering these questions has also changed over the past 20 odd years with the focus now aimed at how students learn and how ICTs can support this learning.

Research has also shown that when learning occurs as part of an authentic activity, it is more relevant and more likely to be used in future situations (Brown, Collins & Duguid, as cited in Grabe & Grabe, p.65 2001). Jonassen, Peck and Wilson as cited in Jonassen, 2001, p.11 describe an authentic learning activity as one which is placed in a meaningful real-world task or is simulated in a problem-based learning environment. ICTs support this learning in multiple ways, for example, accessing primary sources of information through the internet, establishing online pen pals in other countries or using applications such as Geographic Information Software (GIS) that support geography students in representing practical field work professionally. (Jonassen, 2001).

Motivation and learning

Knowing how this works is one thing, making it happen is another. Motivating a student to learn can often be a key factor in improving learning outcomes. Research by the British Educational Communications and Technology Agency, 2003 has found that ICTs improve motivation for student learning in several ways. Firstly, teachers who provided more engaging technology-enhanced lessons reported that students were motivated to continue using computers at other times of the school day as well as at home. Secondly, if the activity was pitched at the correct level of difficulty, utilising ICTs produced higher standards of work and a sense of achievement in previously under-achieving students. Thirdly, a virtual community established through an online learning project helped improve the self-esteem and provided an impetus to engage disaffected learners. And finally, many case studies showed positive effects of using ICTs on student behaviour including ‘increased ability to work independently, enhanced confidence in communicating with others outside their school and family circles, improved attendance at school and improved group work and co-operative skills’.

Interactivity

Rodrigues p.153 (2002) suggests that a way of enhancing instruction is through increased interaction with learning tasks. According to Rodrigues, 2002, p.153 findings in a cognitive experimental research study suggest that a crucial part of the effectiveness of interactivity in ICT is whether the student wants to understand the new information. Rodrigues, 2002, p.153 states theories of interactivity stress the ‘active’ learner who builds their knowledge by receiving feedback on the consequences of their planned actions. A crucial element in this formula for learning would seem to be the planned activity, the testing and re-testing relationships possible through the interactive mode. (Rodrigues, 2002, p.153). Access to the interactive mode allows the student to get into the problem and more powerful learning results. (Rodrigues, 2002, p.153)

Pedagogy and communicative expectations

Snyder (2002) highlights that it is important to understand that the use of technology needs to be contextualised by an awareness of the instrumentality of machine-human relations, and the communicative expectations that govern this type of interchange. McKenzie, 2000 asserts that rather than computers first, it should be the other way around, as in purpose first and strategies and tools next. In offering a solution to this perceived back-to-front implementation Mackenzie, 2000 claims pedagogy at its best will focus on sound instructional design that puts learning in focus first. In doing so, teachers should focus on the question of what we hope our students will learn and then choose strategies and tools that are most likely to produce the results we seek.

Lankshear, et al, 2000, p.117 suggest a strong pattern of practice across most sites that involved ‘conserving’ familiar forms and routines of literacy education, and making use of new technologies to ‘accommodate’ these familiar forms and routines.

Lankshear & Biggum, in press (as cited in Lankshear, et al, 2000) found in their research that teachers seemed to identify technological applications that resonated with their pedagogical styles and that fitted new technologies into classroom business as usual. Lankshear & Biggum, in press (as cited in Lankshear, et al, 2000) argue that much of what they saw could be described as routine school literacy with new technologies added here and there. Adding that a lot of what they observed in classrooms amounted to 1970’s or 80’s process writing (draft, confer, redraft, confer, publish the final copy) reclothed in electronic garb, and a traditional, print-based approach to children’s and adolescents’ literature with a digital make-over.

Lankshear, et al, 2000, p.118 claim that if we believe that school learning is to prepare learners for more than participation in distinctively school Discourses (Gee 1996 as cited in Lankshear, et al, 2000, p.118), we need to be aware of the school as a defining technology. Lankshear, et al, 2000 define the school as a technology: in a way of doing things or of getting things done. Adding not surprisingly, its customary ways of doing things – of doing the business of educating children – confront head-on whatever ‘contributory’ technologies are introduced into the larger ‘school technologies’ are introduced into the larger ‘school technology’. This often results in what we saw – the forced accommodation of new technologies to classroom ‘logics’ in ways that severely limited their potential applications.) Lankshear et al, 2000 argue we need to consider how this influences the uptake of any technology – from pencils to PowerPoint – in the classroom, and to consider means for making learning activities as ‘real’ as possible.



Limited authenticity

Lankshear, et al, 2000, p.118 argue the issue of authenticity has to do with the relationship between school or school-like practices and social practices in the world beyond school. It also has to do with questions about what counts as effective learning and what school learning is for (Gee, Hull & Lankshear, 1996 as cited in Lankshear, et al, 2000, p.118). Further, it concerns the relationship between school and the rest of the world, and the role of school learning in relation to the world at large. Lankshear, et al, 2000, p.118 argue the issue at stake here is recognised in various education policy and syllabus statements by reference to such distinctions as ‘focused learning’ or ‘direct-teaching’ episodes, ‘lifelike’ teaching and learning activities, and ‘real-life’ teaching and learning activities (see Queensland P-10 English syllabus). Lankshear, et al, p.118, 2000 highlight this point and use the ‘Garden Project’ as an example of ‘real-life’ teaching and learning activities of which involved no use of new technologies, was as close as any of the practices came to resembling ‘real life’.

A framework for a somewhat ‘real world’ learning community, Watkins and Marsick (1993) (as cited in Henri & Bonanno, 1999 p.2) suggest six action imperitives which underpin a learning community. Whereby teachers:

· Create continuous learning opportunities
· Promote inquiry and dialogue
· Encourage collaboration and team learning
· Establish systems to capture and share learning
· Empower people towards a collective vision
· Connect the organisation to its environment

Linked closely to the above imperatives Henri, 1995 (as cited in Henri & Bonanno, 1999, p.2) coined the phrase ‘the information literate school community’ in an attempt to highlight the key role that the process of informing plays in this learning community. Two touchstones embedded in this concept are:
· Just in time learning
· Desktop learning

Henri and Bonanno, 1999 assert that the above touchstones are at the heart of the learning community because they allow for adaptation at the workplace just in time for the next learning adventure. The focus is on learning not teaching. There is a recognition that what one needs to know is context driven and lead times are shrinking. The place of information technology and the need to work through networks is becoming compulsory. (Henri & Bonanno p.2 1999)

Models of ICT pedagogy in networked writing classrooms

Corcoran, Amanda and Inskip (1997) discuss notions of Traditionalist Pedagogy, Constructivist Pedagogy and Emerging Pedagogy in the networked writing classroom. Corcoran, et al, 1997 argues that while complexity theory, as an emerging pedagogy, does not provide a panacea for all ills in the field of composition, this adaptive instructional approach provides networked writing instructors with the theoretical framework and terminology to describe, analyze, and facilitate the move in the field of computers and writing from current-traditionalism toward collaboration, from hegemony to a student-centeredness. (Corcoran, et al, 1997)

Further according to Corcoran, et al, 1997 the similarities of complexity theory to the current theories such as Constructivist theory, accepted within the field of computers and writing suggest that complexity theory would be readily understood by instructors not yet sure of the validity of the networked classroom. Corcoran, et al, 1997 argues that the most persuasive reason to accept a pedagogy based upon complexity theory is one that even the most ardent current-traditionalist would accept. Echoing the current-traditionalist's early emphasis upon natural science, complexity pedagogue William E. Doll (as cited in Corcoran, et al, 1997) suggests that we integrate complexity theory into our classrooms because it reflects the world as it really is: "reality is not simple, spiritual, and uniform; it is complex, temporal, and multiple. Corcoran, et al, 1997 adds that we need an [evolutionary] educational model to fit this reality. In support of the Emergent pedagogy of complexity theory Corcoran, et al, 1997 states that we need a ‘transformative, not a [reductionist] pedagogy.’


New Research and ICT applications with a focus on multiliteracies
ICT applications and multiliteracies of significant interest in current research include those that are accessible from the World Wide Web. For example weblogs for the purposes of research, online publishing and collaborative writing; Synchronous and asynchronous online discussion and chat boards; as well as real life simulation and interactive modes such as MUDS and MOOs - which emphasise reading and writing, generating ideas, discussions and reflective learning; The World Wide Web for enhancing a range of multiliteracies - particularly research skills enhancing information literacy, reading and writing skills enhancing overall literacy, as well as multi-media literacies.
One application ‘Blogging’ – a contraction of the term ‘web logging’ – is perhaps best described as a form of micro-publishing. (Williams & Jacobs, 2004) Easy to use, from any Internet connection point, blogging has become firmly established as a web-based communications tool. Viewed by some as a ‘narcissistic, banal and faintly ridiculous online subculture’ (Bryant, 2003 as cited in Williams & Jacobs, 2004), the blogging phenomenon has evolved somewhat from its early origin as a medium for the publication of simple online personal diaries. Many blogs have large and dedicated readerships, and blog clusters have formed linking fellow bloggers in accordance with their common interests. This simple innovation is being described as the latest disruptive technology, the ‘killer app’ that has the capacity to engage people in collaborative activity, knowledge sharing, reflection and debate, where complex and expensive technology has failed (Hiler, 2003 as cited in Williams & Jacobs, 2004)
Lankshear and Knobel, 2004 discuss the notion of using weblogs and chat to research innovative new literacies. Lankshear and Knobel, 2004 found that many internet applications, and weblogs and chat in particular, have an interesting reflexivity for researchers of new literacies, because they can be used as instruments and other kinds of resources within the very process of researching new literacies (and anything else for that matter). Work currently being done by Angela Thomas in Australia, who is investigating ways in which children construct their identities in multimodal digital worlds, is an excellent exemplar of how weblogs and chat spaces, among other online media, can be used as research tools. For the past four years, she has been studying young people aged 10 – 16 from the US, Canada , Australia , the UK , Holland , Finland and Germany. (Lankshear & Knobel, 2004). Further the range of multimodal worlds in which the young people participate includes websites and weblogs, MUDs and chat services (like IM, chat, etc.; and referred to generically by participants as “talkers”), video games and graphic virtual worlds like the Palace. Themes under investigation include the ways online literacy practices shape identity, children's reports about embodiment as it occurs in digital worlds, the ways children exercise power and control in such environments, the development of relationships with others within digital space, the type of capital associated with existing in digital worlds, and the gender differences in online discursive and social practices. (Lankshear & Knobel, 2004). The study aims to illuminate ways in which children's online lives are intimately connected to their sense of self and their developing identities as subjects of the new media age. (Lankshear & Knobel, 2004)
In terms of the teachers role according to Inguarson, 2000, p.55 the school and teachers need to examine how the internet is going to be a useful and valuable resource. For example at Scotch College, a teacher’s role is to stand firmly between the student and the material available on the World Wide Web, acting as a filter, a verifier, a collator and an advisor. Only in this way can useful information be translated into a meaningful and focused form that might allow students to increase their knowledge base. (Inguarson, 2000, p.55).



Methodology
The methodology of this Research Project is a Literature Review into the topic statement;
Integrating Information Communication Technology (ICT) into the curriculum: The potential contribution for enhancing learning of multiliteracies in Australian schools. This paper is for the purposes of the University of Southern Queensland course titled Professional Studies Project II.



Results / Discussion

ICT in Education

Critical history of ICT in education visions for the future?

According to various literature ICT in education is seen to have potential as a valuable tool in education. However in saying that Mackezie, 2000 identifies weaknesses. Leinonen, 2005 also critical puts a strong counter-argument forward against the potential of ICT in education by using a critical approach to the history of ICT in education. Leinonen, 2005 claims that the pedagogical reasons for these changes have not always been sound; rather they have emerged along with technological capability and have often failed as a result to deliver improved learning outcomes.

Theories and views on ICT and education

In discussing the notion of a technological revolution Lankshear et al, 2000 support the change with the assertion that there is a need to formulate theories that are as dynamic as the technologies. Lankshear, et al, 2000 note the importance of educational purpose and standards to be clearly in focus.

Why the need for effective integration of ICT in Australian middle and senior schools?
Henri and Bonanno, 1999 demand a restructuring of education in the current technological revolution. This argument is put forward largely on the basis of a need for information literacy to cope with the information age.





Multiliteracies

What are multiliteracies and what are the new literacies?

Henri and Bonanno, 1999 give a more precise definition than Kalantzis et al (2002) whom define the idea of new literacies more loosely. Kalantzis, et al, 2002 in broader terms associate literacy to key aspects of the new environment such as technology, work, visual communication, diversity, global English and multiple Englishes and makes the point that English is fast becoming a world language as well, social mobility and social progress. Bull and Anstey, 2003 also at one point relate ICTs with the emergence of diverse new forms of social practice and literacy. Both authors views point to a contextual basis for literacy for example technologies are seen as cultural tools, and shape what they mean and, indeed what they are within the various contexts people use them. Henri and Bonanno, 1999 explicitly define what the abilities of multiliteracies encompass and how these abilities present.

Different planning practices for teaching literacies

In planning practices Bull and Anstey, 2003 promote dynamic planning practices rather than static. Further recommending that because of dynamism, there is great variety in planning practices which can then lead to useful sharing between teachers with the goal being to develop new techniques rather than make all planning the same. Snyder and Green, 2000 in support of planning claim that to emphasise use of technologies without adequate attention to foregrounding the structure and point of the practice is likely to confuse students in the short run and to be counterproductive in the long run, as it sets them out on a false tragectory. Henri and Bonanno’s, 1999 suggestion of strategies such as the Sigmoid Curve, The Donut Principle and the Chinese Contract include approaches that are from a philosophical basis.

Government policy, agendas and the problem of teacher professional development

All authors in the literature review such as Henri and Bonanno, 1999; Bull and Anstey, 2003; Bowes, 2003, and many others attest a critical view of government policy and agendas largely holding the government to blame for lack of funding and professional development in schools. Both Bowes, 2003 and Henri and Bonanno, 1999 see professional development for teachers as pivotal for successful integration of ICT for learning of new literacies across the curriculum. Bowes, 2003 asserts that professional development should not just look at acquisition of ICT and multiliteracy skills but also look at enhancing students’ abilities through a focus on how learning occurs.

Henri and Bonanno, 1999 focus strongly on the argument that the Principal and executive teachers, as leaders in the school learning community lead the force of change within the school. Henri and Bonanno, 1999 pro-actively suggest a test to gauge how successful a school information literacy program rates. A wide range of literature suggests that the issue of funding and accessibility is one factor that stands in the way of significant progress in the first instance having the equipment to use and secondly using the equipment in a pedagogically sound manner. Oberman, Lindauer and Wilson, 1998 (as cited in Henri and Bonanno, 1999) in examining professional development at the whole school level recommend a range of processes and models that have been employed to further the cause of the integration of information literacy across a curriculum.

Effective Pedagogies

Integrating ICT to enhance literacies for learning

Shelley, et al, 2004 argue that learning occurs when the content engages students to use higher-order thinking skills that go beyond the simple acquisition of knowledge and become active learners. Shelley et al, 2004 strong focus on the notion of content and learning differs from some of the other authors’ views, in that learning should not so much be about content but rather learning experiences. Current trends in Education Queensland Syllabus documents also reflect a view that does not emphasise content but rather an understanding of key concepts within specific learning experiences. This view points toward the notion of constructivist methods as well as discovery learning.

Bowes, 2003 sees the successful implementation of ICTs to support learning of multiliteracies relies on many factors, including an understanding of how students learn, student motivation and skills, the applications utilised and authentic learning experiences linked to ICT use. This holistic approach is also reflected in much of the research literature for this review. Cognitive views and constructivism are prevalent discourses within literature relating to ICTs, multiliteracies and pedagogy in education. Jonassen, 2001 strongly promotes authentic tasks, as in tasks reflective of the ‘real world’ in using ICT in the classroom. Whereas, Rodrigues, 2002 strongly advocates the interactive mode of ICT whereby an ‘active’ learner builds their knowledge by receiving feedback on the consequences of their planned actions. Both authors promote these activities as ways in which increased motivation occurs.

In counter-argument of McKenzie’s, 2000 claim that teachers should blend the old with the new Lankshear, et al, 2000 assert that research indicates a strong pattern of practice across most sites that involved ‘conserving’ familiar forms and routines of literacy education, and making use of new technology to accommodate old pedagogical styles. Further Lankshear, et al, 2000 suggest from observational findings teachers identify technological applications that resonated with their pedagogical styles and that fitted new technologies into classrooms as usual. In a critical view of such practices Lankshear, et al, 2000 go on to point out that a lot of what was observed amounted to 1970’s or 80’s process writing (draft, confer, redraft, confer, publish the final copy) reclothed in electronic garb.

A link is made by Lankshear, et al, 2000 between logics as in ‘doing the business of teaching’ and that of limited authenticity or ‘the forced accommodation of new technologies to classroom ‘logics’ in ways that severely limited their potential applications. Henri and Bonanno’s, 1999 own notion of a learning community links also to notions of the ‘real world’ in which networks and communities exist, particularly in the instance of a changing globalised economy and workforce. Henri and Bonanno, 1999 sees ‘just in time learning’ and ‘desktop learning’ at the heart of the learning community because they allow for adaptation at the workplace just in time for the next learning adventure. Henri and Bonanno, 1999, like much of the current literature focuses on learning and not teaching. Further there is a recognition that what one needs to know is context driven and lead times are shrinking. Like other authors Henri and Bonanno, 1999 make the point that the place of information technology and the need to work through networks is becoming compulsory. This is certainly the case in the instance of a globalised economy.





Models of ICT pedagogy in networked writing classrooms

Corcoran, et al, 1997 in arguing in favour of complexity theory links it to the current theories such as Constructivist theory. Corcoran, et al, 1997 argues that the most persuasive reason to accept a pedagogy based upon complexity theory is one that even the most ardent current-traditionalist would accept claiming ‘reality is not simple, spiritual, and uniform; it is complex, temporal, and multiple’. Corcoran, et al, 1997 adds that we need an [evolutionary] educational model to fit this reality. In support of the Emergent pedagogy of complexity theory Corcoran, et al, 1997 states that we need a ‘transformative, not a [reductionist] pedagogy.’

Examples of ICT applications focusing on multiliteracies

Williams and Jacobs, 2004 bring a counter-argument by Bryant, 2003 (as sited in
Williams and Jacobs, 2004) to their discussion on blogs claimed by some to be viewed as a ‘narcissistic, banal and faintly ridiculous online subculture’ (as cited in Williams & Jacobs, 2004). However Williams and Jacobs (2004) counter that commentary and state that this simple innovation is being described as the latest disruptive technology, the ‘killer app’ that has the capacity to engage people in collaborative activity, knowledge sharing, reflection and debate, where complex and expensive technology has failed. (Hiler 2003 as cited in Williams and Jacobs 2004).

Lankshear and Knobel, 2004 found that many internet applications, and weblogs and chat in particular, have an interesting reflexivity for researchers of new literacies, because they can be used as instruments and other kinds of resources within the very process of researching new literacies (and anything else for that matter). Lankshear and Knobel, 2004 praise and make reference to work currently being done in the field of new literacies in the context of using new literacies to learn more about how they work through authentic engagement with young people in weblogs, chat spaces and other online media.



Conclusions / Recommendations

Through my literature review research I have come to strongly believe there is a need for learning experiences that are authentic based and that enhance multiliteracy skills that can then be transferred to other areas of the learners life. Such learning experiences should be student centred and empower learners to be active as well as critical and reflective learners. Whereby learners are able to read their own worlds effectively and are empowered to move onwards as independent lifelong learners. This opinion is shared by many authors in the literature reviewed and is reflected widely in government policy documents. For example, any of the P-12 Education Queensland Syllabus Documents support this notion.

In offering recommendations for improvement of integration of ICT into the curriculum Mckenzie
2000, suggests we should emphasise learning goals and strategies when planning lessons. McKenzie
2000, also suggests that if new tools add little value, they deserve little place in the classroom.
A major reason and what I believe to be one the most significant factors hindering ICT integration in some Australian schools is the lack of professional development for continuing teachers. Teachers are unsure about how to successfully and effectively utilise technology in the classroom. In my experience teachers are unlikely to integrate ICTs while they themselves are unfamiliar with the processes, knowledge and skills involved with the ranges of technology.

In recommendation Oberman, Lindauer and Wilson,1998 (as cited in Henri & Bonanno, 1999, p.4) provide some insight into a range of processes and models that have been employed to further the cause of the integration of information literacy across a curriculum. Of particular interest is the information literacy IQ test designed by Oberman, Lindauer and Wilson, 1998 (as cited in Henri & Bonanno, 1999, p.4). The purpose of this Institutional Quotient is to identify what critical building block must be in place to ensure a successful information literacy program. The format of this test involves the assigning of a true or false answer to a series of statements. Each IQ score provides a relative ranking of where the institution may be in terms of developing an information literacy program. It is logical that if schools seek to improve integration of ICT the IQ test would be a useful indication of where schools development is at in terms of how well their ICT management system measures.

Statements in the IQ test include:
· There are support and rewards for faculty who develop and redesign curriculum to include concepts of information literacy
· My school engages in resource based, problem solving learning.
· My school encourages a climate of collaboration
· Teaching modalities are student centred (with an emphasis on active learning).
· Collaboration exists among curricula designers, faculty, libraries, academic advisers, computing staff. (Henri & Bonanno, 1999, p.4).

A major step forward in improving integration of ICT and multiliteracies at a local level starts with schools, their leaders and teachers themselves. The successful implementation of ICTs to support learning of multiliteracies relies on many factors. Such factors found to be significant include learning from mistakes of the past through a critical look at the history of ICT in respect to positive visions for the future. Secondly understanding of theories on ICT and multiliteracies as well understanding how students learn, pedagogy and planning practices, student motivation, teacher motivation and skills, the applications utilised and authentic learning experiences linked to the ICT use.




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